Cictus Creticus / Incanus and Bee

The main products of bee.

1. Honey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Honey is a sweet fluid produced by honey bees (and some other species) and derived from the nectar of flowers. According to the United States National Honey Board and various international food regulations, "honey stipulates a pure product that does not allow for the addition of any other substance…this includes, but is
not limited to, water or other sweeteners". This article refers exclusively to the honey produced by honey bees (the genus Apis); honey produced by other bees or other insects has very different properties.

Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar (97% of the sweetness of sucrose, a disaccharide). Honey h
as attractive chemical properties for baking, and a distinctive flavor which leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweeteners.

A main effect of bees collecting nectar to make honey is pollination, which is crucial for flowering plants.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pollen is a fine to coarse powder consisting of microgametophytes (polle
n grains), which produce the male gametes (sperm cells) of seed plants. A hard coat covering the pollen grain protects the sperm cells during the process of their movement between the stamens of the flower to the pistil of the next flower.

The structure of pollen

Each pollen grain contains vegetative (non-reproductive) cells (only a single cell in most flowering plants but several in other seed plants) and a generative (reproductive) cell containing two nuclei: a tube nucleus (that produces the pollen tube) and a generative nucleus (that divides to form the two sperm cells). The group of cells is surrounded by a cellulose-rich cell wall called the intine, and a resistant outer wall composed largely of sporopollenin called the exine.

The apiarists in the north Crete say: The pollen from the plant Cistus Creticus has yellow colour and is very sweet.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. Propolis is used for small gaps (approximately 6.35 millimeters (0.3 in) or less), while larger spaces are usually filled with beeswax. Its color varies depending on its botanical source, the most common being dark brown. Propolis is sticky at and above room temperature. At lower temperatures it becomes hard and very brittle.

For centuries, beekeepers assumed that bees sealed the beehive with propo
lis to protect the colony from the elements, such as rain and cold winter drafts. However, 20th century research has revealed that bees not only survive, but also thrive, with increased ventilation during the winter months throughout most temperate regions of the world.


Medical use

Propolis is marketed by health food stores as a traditional medicine, and for its claimed beneficial effect on human health.

Natural medicine practitioners use propolis for the relief of various conditions, including inflammations, viral diseases, ulcers, superficial burns or scalds.

Propolis is also believed to promote heart health, strengthen the immune system and reduce the chances of cataracts. Old bee
keepers recommend a piece of propolis kept in the mouth as a remedy for a sore throat. Propolis lozenges and tinctures can be bought in many countries. Though claims have been made for its use in treating allergies, propolis may cause severe allergic reactions if the user is sensitive to bees or bee products.

Some of these claims are being clinically investigated and several studies are published in the biomedical literature. Since the chemical composition of propolis varies depending on season, bee species and geographic location, caution must be applied in extrapolating results (as above).

As an antimicrobial

Depending upon its composition, propolis may show powerful local antibiotic and antifungal properties,

As an emollient

Studies also indicate that it may be effective in treating skin burns.

As an immunomodulator

Propolis also exhibits immunomodulatory effects

As a Dental Anti-Plaque Agent

Propolis is a subject of recent dentistry research, since there is some evidence that propolis may actively protect against caries and other forms of oral disease, due to its antimicrobial properties. Propolis can also be used to treat canker sores, its use in canal debridement for endodontic procedures has been explored in Brazil.

As an anti-tumor growth agent

Propolis' use in inhibiting tumorigenesis has been studied in mice in Japan.

Commercial uses

In musical instruments

Propolis is used by certain music instrument makers to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. It is a component of some varnishes and was reportedly used by Antonio Stradivari.
Propolis in North Crete is same with labdanum from plant Cistus creticus.

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