Holy Books of the World

The Analects A collection of Confucius' teachings thought to have been recorded by his students. They are considered the only sayings that can safely be attributed to him.

Bhagavad Gita A Sanskrit poem that is part of the Indian epic known as the Mahabharata . It describes, in a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Prince Arjuna, the Hindu path to spiritual wisdom and the unity with God that can be achieved through karma (action), bhakti (devotion), and jnana (knowledge). The Bhagavad-Gita was probably written sometime between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200.

Five Classics
Five works traditionally attributed to Confucius that form the basic texts of Confucianism. They are the Spring and Autumn Annals, a history of Confucius's native district; the I Ching (or Book of Changes ), a system of divining the future; the Book of Rites , which outlines ceremonies and describes the ideal government; the Book of History ; and the Book of Songs , a collection of poetry. Together they promulgate a system of ethics for managing society based on sympathy for others, etiquette, and ritual. Although the dates of these books are uncertain, they were probably written before the third century B.C.

Koran (Arabic, al-Qur'an) The primary holy book of Islam. It is made up of 114 suras, or chapters, which contain impassioned appeals for belief in God, encouragement to lead a moral life, portrayals of damnation and beatitude, stories of Islamic prophets, and rules governing the social and religious life of Muslims. Believers maintain that the Koran contains the verbatim word of God, revealed to the prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. Some of the suras were written during Muhammad's lifetime, but an authoritative text was not produced until c. A.D. 650.

New Testament The second portion of the Christian Bible, which contains 27 books that form the basis of Christian belief. These books include the sayings of Jesus, the story of his life and work, the death and resurrection of Jesus now celebrated as Easter, the teachings and writings of the apostles, and instruction for converting nonbelievers and for performing baptisms, blessings, and other rituals. The New Testament is believed to have been written c. A.D. 100, some 70 to 90 years after the death of Jesus.

Old Testament
The Christian name for the Hebrew Bible. It is the sacred scripture of Judaism and the first portion of the Christian Bible. According to Jewish teachings, it is made up of three parts: the Law (also known as the Torah or Pentateuch), comprising the first five books (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy), which describes the origins of the world, the covenant between the Lord and Israel, the exodus and entry into the promised land, and the various rules governing social and religious behavior; the Prophets , including the former prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel 1-2, Kings 1-2) and the latter prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 12 minor prophets), which describes the history of the Israelites, the stories of heroes, kings, judges, and wars, and the choosing of David as leader of the Israelites; and the Writings (including Psalms, Job, Song of Solomon, and Ruth, among others), which describes the reactions of the people to the laws and covenants, as well as prayers and praises of the covenant. Some books of the Old Testament regarded as sacred by the Jews are not accepted as such by Christians; among Christians there are differences between Roman Catholics and Protestants about the inclusion of some books, the order of the books, and the original sources used in translating them. Scholars generally agree that the Old Testament was compiled from c. 1000 B.C. to c. 100 B.C.

Talmud A compilation of Jewish oral law and rabbinical teachings that is separate from the scriptures of the Hebrew Bible, or Old Testament. It is made up of two parts: the Mishna , which is the oral law itself, and the Gemara , a commentary on the Mishna . The Talmud contains both a legal section (the Halakah ) and a portion devoted to legends and stories (the Aggada ). The authoritative Babylonian Talmud was compiled in the sixth century.

Tao-te-ching (The Way and Its Power) The basic text of the Chinese philosophy and religion known as Taoism. It is made up of 81 short chapters or poems that describe a way of life marked by quiet effortlessness and freedom from desire. This is thought to be achieved by following the creative, spontaneous life force of the universe, called the Tao. The book is attributed to Lao-tzu, but it was probably a compilation by a number of writers over a long period of time.

Upanishads The basis of Hindu religion and philosophy that form the final portion of the Veda . The 112 Upanishads describe the relationship of the Brahman , or universal soul, to the atman , or individual soul; they also provide information about Vedic sacrifice and yoga. The original texts of the Upanishads come from various sources and were written beginning c. 900 B.C.

Veda The sacred scripture of Hinduism. Four Vedas make up the Samhita , a collection of prayers and hymns that are considered to be revelations of eternal truth written by seer-poets inspired by the gods. The Rig-Veda , the Sama-Veda , and the Yajur-Veda are books of hymns; the Atharva-Veda compiles magic spells. These writings maintain that the Brahman , or Absolute Self, underlies all reality and can be known by invoking gods through the use of hymns or mantes. The Vedic texts were compiled between c. 1000 B.C. and c. 500 B.C., making them the oldest known group of religious writings.


Fanny Video.

When walking in Crete, a herd of goats followed Steven



Yesterday, a fire destroyed one of the most beautiful places in Greece. Authorities showed great incompetence to save a small piece of land (just 200 meters in length) of such a tremendus beauty. Local goverment - controlled media almost said nothing about it and showed no images of the destruction. It's a greek shame! Please, spread this video. Help to protect the remaining Greek treasures from the incapable, irresponsible Greek system.


Acqua di Gioia, the new fragrance for Women by Giorgio Armani


Inspiring an emotion that draws on both the land and the sea, ACQUA DI GIOIA is an essence of joy extracted from the very heart of the elements.

ACQUA DI GIOIA celebrates Woman and Nature, suggesting an exhilarating escape in which all the senses are awakened. It is inspired by distant islands where Giorgio Armani likes to replenish his energy and where rainwater and sea spray blend together creating a liquid that evokes the very spirit of luxuriant and fertile nature. In ACQUA DI GIOIA, powerful terrestrial elements conjure up the image of a strong, serene and free-spirited woman who exists in perfect harmony with Mother Nature.

Giorgio Armani sublimely expresses the elation of the senses with a joyful creation that caresses the skin: ACQUA DI GIOIA.


There is a charming sensation of freshness from the very first vegetal notes which are carried along in a deliciously heady current of crushed Mint, with a zest of Italian Limone Primo Fiore Femminello", harvested from the first spring blossoms in Calabria.

This emotion transforms into an aquatic renaissance with a delicate and crystalline nature derived from the scent of Water Jasmine, giving the perfume sophisticated and unexpected facets.

At its base, ACQUA DI GIOIA bears the signature of water rooted in the Earth, revealed by luscious LMR* Cedarwood sprinkled with sensuous Brown Sugar and Labdanum, which is one of the rare plants to possess animal notes.


With its curved lines, decidedly inspired by the forms of nature, Giorgio Armani has created the ACQUA DI GIOIA bottle so that it combines the notion of the waves of the sea and a womans body in a single drop of thick, transparent glass.

This pure, organic design is a modern embodiment of Giorgio Armani's aesthetic of essential elegance and also references the search for contemporary, authentic femininity that inspires him. An emerald green droplet continues the wave effect and is blown into the glass to seal the bottle.

Its minimalist sea green pack is covered with a pearlescent sheen that suggests the natural, effervescent spirit of the fragrance.


Seasonal Dimorphism in the Mediterranean Cistus incanus L. subsp. incanus

Giovanna Aronne+ and Veronica De Micco

Laboratorio di Ecologia Riproduttiva, Dipartimento di Arboricoltura, Botanica e Patologia Vegetale (Sezione Botanica), Università degli Studi di Napoli ‘Federico II’, via Università 100, 80055, Portici (Napoli), Italy
Received: 20 November 2000 ; Returned for revision: 5 January 2001 . Accepted: 23 February 2001

Mediterranean perennial species are described as being sclerophyllous, or summer deciduous, or seasonally dimorphic. Field observation in the coastal maquis of Castelvolturno Nature Reserve, southern Italy, showed thatCistus incanus L. subsp. incanus is a seasonally dimorphic species as it develops brachyblasts with small leaves in summer, and dolichoblasts with large leaves in winter. Field biometric data confirmed that winter shoots were 14-times longer than those developed in summer and had many more leaves. The area of single winter leaves was five-times that of summer leaves. Anatomical leaf structure also changed with the season: winter leaves were flat while summer leaves had a crimped lamina which was partially rolled to form crypts in the lower surface. Leaves were covered by considerably more trichomes in summer than in winter. Stomata were uniformly distributed along the lower epidermis of winter leaves but were only present in the crypts of summer leaves. In summer leaves, a palisade layer was often found on both sides of the lamina, the mesophyll cells were generally smaller and the intercellular spaces were reduced. Winter leaves had a dorsiventral structure and larger intercellular spaces. Seasonal dimorphism is generally reported to be an adaptation to summer drought. However, the morphology and anatomy of C. incanus L. subsp.incanus showed that the subspecies has not only developed a strategy to survive summer drought, but has evolved two different habits, one more xerophytic than the other, to optimize adaptation to the seasonal climatic changes occurring in Mediterranean environments. Copyright 2001 Annals of Botany Company

Cistus, Cistus incanus L. subsp. incanus, climatic changes, leaf anatomy, leaf dimorphism, Mediterranean shrubs, phenology, seasonal dimorphism

1. Winter leaves of Cistus Incanus

2.Summer leaves of Cistus Incanus.


Scents of the Mediterranean


Labdanum from Cistus Creticus is a real Mediterranean perfume.

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